LED stands for light-emitting diode. With traditional light sources, such as incandescent and fluorescent, light is produced by heating a filament to incandescence or establishing an electrical arc through a gas mixture. LED operates on a fundamentally different principle. It is solid state lighting – emitting light from a small semiconducting chip when a current is applied.
How Do LEDs Work?
LEDs are semiconductors created by bringing together similar materials with slightly different electronic properties to create a p-n junction. In a p-n junction, the “p” material contains an excess of positive charges (also called holes) due to the absence of electrons. The “n” material contains an excess of negative charges due to the presence of electrons. When a current is applied, the electrons cross the junction and fall into the holes releasing their energy as light.